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THE

42nd Georgia

HISTORICAL DOCUMENT

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Jeremiah B. Hamby - Forgotten Civil War Casualty

by

James C. Shellnutt

(Great-grandson of Jeremiah's brother, Jasper)

1999, James C. Shellnutt

Jeremiah (Jerry) B. Hamby, of Conyers, Newton County, Georgia, is one of thousands of Confederate soldiers who fought, suffered, died, were mourned, and then forgotten. Because he was not married, and did not have children, there are no direct descendants to remember him and his service. Even though good deal of information still exists about Jerry and his fellow soldiers, it's scattered among numerous sources; one must labor to fit the pieces of the puzzle together. This brief biography of Jerry is an attempt to compile the available information, so that other's can be made aware of this man, who should be more than just a name and two dates. As a participant in significant events in the Western Theater of the Civil War, Jeremiah B. Hamby deserves to be remembered.

Jeremiah Hamby was born in the Conyers district of Newton County, Georgia, in 1833. He was one of 13 children (7 sons and 6 daughters), the third son of Isaac and Nancy Elizabeth (Melton) Hamby. Jerry's branch of the Hamby clan had been in the Newton County area (just south-east of Atlanta, behind Stone Mountain) since at least the early 19th century; and the Hambys are known to have been in the South since well before the American Revolution. Jerry's Hamby ancestors can be found in Maryland and South Carolina as early as 1700, and several Hambys served in the Continental Militia.

Jerry's mother, Nancy Elizabeth, was from a long line of Meltons in the South. Direct Melton ancestors are found in the Virginia colony in the early 1600's. Jerry's maternal great-grandfather, Jeremiah Melton, was fighting the British as a "Regulator" in Orange County, North Carolina, in 1771, and, later, as a Private in the Continental Militia. The Meltons, along with the Crows and Strouds, moved into north central Georgia after the Revolution, looking for the land, and freedom, that they had been promised. Some were lucky winners in the Georgia Land Lottery of 1805, including Jerry's grandfather, Moses Melton. Others had land grants in this area, which had only recently been opened up for settlement, after being purchased from the Creek Indians.

Over all, Jerry's ancestors are numbered among the very earliest settlers of interior Georgia, and of the South. Whether he knew this or not, is unknown; but Jerry Hamby represents the very bedrock of Colonial and 19th century American middle class society.

Little of a personal nature is known about Jerry. We know that he was taught to read and write. Because his father, Isaac, was a Baptist preacher, and a literate man, the Hamby children were all educated. In 1850, we find all the children above the age of nine, girls and boys, attending school, including the 17 year old Jerry.

In 1860, we find the 27 year old Jerry working as a carpenter, and still living in his parents large, extended family household. His brothers, William, Jasper, and George had already struck-off on their own, but this still left a family of 15, including Jerry's parents, maternal grandparents, 4 unmarried sisters, 2 minor brothers, his mentally handicapped older brother, Moses, and a widowed sister and her two young sons. Even though Jerry's father possessed considerable assets for a man of the cloth, we may speculate that Jerry was helping to support this rather large group of his relatives.

Although photographs exist of Jerry's parents and many of his brothers and sisters, no photograph that can be positively identified as Jerry has surfaced. Because of the lack of a photograph, Jerry's exact physical appearance is not certain. If he was true to his family's genetics, and at all resembled his brothers, we can make a few generalizations. Jerry was probably of medium height (5'5" to 5'8"), and medium build. He may have had a long-oval face and high forehead. Jerry was probably dark haired, with deep set eyes and prominent brows. He may have had a wide, slightly turned-down mouth (a characteristic prominent in his mother). The Hamby men of his generation can be considered generally handsome, but it is unlikely that he would have stood out in a crowd. In all likelihood, Jerry was an "average guy", just as his family was an average, middle class Georgia family of the times.

The history of Jeremiah Hamby becomes more specific upon his enlistment in the Confederate Army on March 4, 1862. Because Conyers was a stop on the railroad line that ran eastward from Atlanta to Athens, Jerry probably traveled by train to Covington, Georgia, the County Seat of Newton County. There he volunteered for a three year enlistment as a Private soldier in Captain J.M. Summers' company of infantry. For his commitment of three years of his life (and ultimately, his very life), he received a bounty of $50. This amount represents possibly one or two months wages for a skilled civilian man, or almost five months pay for a Confederate Private, at the rate of $11 per month.

Captain Summers' company, Jerry Hamby included, was mustered into Confederate service as Company F, 42nd Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry, commanded by Colonel Robert J. Henderson.

Lacking personal letters, diaries, or other documents written by the participants themselves, it is almost impossible to know the actions and movements of any individual soldier. Official records seldom concern themselves with units smaller than the regiment. Since no personal accounts in Jerry Hamby's hand are known to exist, we shall surmise his service from that of Company F, the 42nd Georgia Infantry, and of the Brigades to which the 42nd was assigned. Unless his Service Record specifically declares him "absent", we will assume that he participated in the events further described (with the full understanding that, in some cases, there is no proof of his individual participation).

Jerry appears as "present" on his Company's Muster Roll for March and April of 1862. Beginning on March 4, he was at Camp McDonald; Big Shanty, Georgia, with his Company from Newton County. Other Companies in the Regiment were still arriving at Camp McDonald on March 12, from other counties east of Atlanta. Except for his $50 bounty, Jerry had not been paid since his enlistment.

After April of 1862, there is a large gap in Jerry's personal records. The 42nd Georgia was assigned to Raine's Brigade, Carter Stevenson's "Georgia" Division, Department of East Tennessee, probably in April. After only a month of training, the Regiment was put into action. It is known that the 42nd Georgia left Camp McDonald on April 16, and travelled by train to Knoxville, Tennessee, where they arrived the next day. They remained at Knoxville until April 23. At noon on April 23, they began a 60 mile march, north to Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, where they arrived on April 28. Here they opposed the Union advance into northeastern Tennessee from Kentucky.There was a firefight with the enemy on April 29, but not all Companies were involved, so it is unlikely that Jerry saw any of this action. Although the records are sketchy, we know that the 42nd participated in the action around Cumberland Gap, beginning in mid-June of '62.

At Cumberland Gap, on June 17 and 18, 1862, the Confederate works were flanked by a Union division under Gen. George W. Morgan. The Confederate defenders were forced to fall back to the East Tennessee & Georgia railroad. There was fighting at Tazewell, TN, on July 26, and again on August 6; the 42nd is known to have fought at Tazewell. Then, on August 14, Gen. Carter Stevenson's division of Georgians laid siege to the Union position at Cumberland Gap. This action allowed Kirby Smith's Confederate force to bypass the Union position on it's first move of the 1862 Kentucky campaign. Morgan's 8,000 Union troops were contained at Cumberland Gap until the battle of September 17, when they were pushed northward by Gen. Stevenson's division of 9,000 Confederates, including Jerry Hamby and the 42nd Georgia. Stevenson's force then moved into Kentucky.

The military organization of Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee at this time is very confusing, with regiments being reassigned to different brigades almost weekly. Whether the entire 42nd Georgia Regiment accompanied Gen. Stevenson's forces into Kentucky is uncertain. The "Record of Events" is mute on the entire period from the end of April, 1862, until March of 1863. Some units were left at Cumberland Gap, others marched into Kentucky, but were left as guards at various important locations along the way. At least some of the Companies in the 42nd Georgia (i.e. Company H) are known to have marched into Kentucky. Exactly what Jerry Hamby's Company F was doing during the Kentucky campaign is not certain. However, there is no reason to question that they were involved in the events described below.

The Confederate forces under Gen. Stevenson spent several months marching into and out of Kentucky, but they were not involved in any major battles during this time. After leaving Cumberland Gap, Stevenson's command linked up with the eastern wing of Braxton Bragg's two pronged force; the eastern wing was commanded by Gen. Kirby Smith. While Bragg's force marched toward Louisville, Kirby Smith's men occupied Lexington.

The Kentucky campaign ended with the battle of Perryville, on October 8, 1862. The Battle of Perryville was fought by the western wing, under Gen. Braxton Bragg, the overall commander of the entire campaign. Stevenson's Division was at Lexington with Gen. Kirby Smith, and saw no action at this battle. Although Perryville was a standoff (some say technically a Confederate victory), the Confederate army began a general withdrawal from Kentucky after the battle of October 8. This was due, in part, to the lack of support by the residences of Kentucky, who had been expected to rally to the Confederate cause; that did not happen. Also, Gen. Bragg seems to have lost his confidence at about this time; his decision to withdraw, after some success, was never fully explained. Kirby Smith's army withdrew to Harrodsburg, KY, where they were joined with Bragg's army for the march south, with Gen. Buell's Union force in hot pursuit.

Conditions for the private soldier were said to be terrible during this withdrawal. Large quantities of supplies and stores had been intentionally destroyed in Kentucky. Little or no rations were issued along the line of march. Braxton Bragg was known for his poor treatment of the men under his command. The mismanagement of equipment and supplies, intended for the men in the ranks, would probably be considered criminal by today's standards. The men were generally tired, hungry, badly clothed, and morale was low. We can only speculate as to the toll this march may have taken on Jerry and his comrades.

So, under these conditions, the Confederates marched out of Kentucky and back the way they had come, through Cumberland Gap, TN. By the end of October, they were back in relative safety. They had marched over 500 miles, only to end-up where they had started from. Although they had captured a large number of arms and artillery pieces, very little else was accomplished by this months long campaign.

Winter quarters were established around Chattanooga, where Bragg's army remained for almost two months. It was now late December, 1862. As Bragg's main force moved north towards Murfreesboro, TN, (and the ultimate battle there of), Jerry and the 42nd Georgia were detached from Bragg's army, and sent to reenforce the army of Gen. Pemberton at Vicksburg, in opposition to advances being made by the Federals under Gen. Sherman.

The 42nd Georgia travelled into Mississippi, where they were heavily involved at the battle of Chicasaw Bayou, 6 miles north of Vicksburg, in late December of '62. The 42nd Georgia probably arrived by train on December 27, as other regiments from the Kentucky campaign are known to have done. This battle had begun on December 26, when Gen. U.S. Grant ordered three Union divisions, under Maj. Gen. W.T. Sherman, to approach Vicksburg from the northeast. The Confederate defensive position was strong, and several attempts by Sherman's forces to flank them, on the 27th and 28th, were repulsed. The Confederate position had been generally reenforced by the arrival of the troops from eastern Tennessee, on the 27th. On December 29, Sherman ordered a frontal attack.

In the action of December 29, 1862, the 42nd Georgia was detailed with the 28th Louisiana, both regiments under the command of Col. Allen Thomas (of the 28th Louisiana), and attached to the forces of Gen. Stephen Lee. At about 9 A.M. on the 29th, the Union forces attempted to place a pontoon bridge across the lake on the Confederate left. As soon as this was discovered, Gen. Lee moved the two regiments under Col. Thomas to his left, in front of the threatened point. About 10 A.M., the Union opened a "furious cannonade" against the Confederate position. At 11 A.M., the Union artillery fire ceased, and 6,000 Union infantry moved across the dry lake, 200 yards from the Confederate line. The Confederate artillery and musket fire was so intense that the Union advance broke; but they soon rallied, and sent a force to the Confederate left flank, in an attempt to turn it. Here the Union force was met by the 42nd Georgia and 28th Louisiana, and "handsomely repulsed". According to Gen. Lee, "Our fire was so severe that the enemy lay down to avoid it." Col. Thomas reported that his two regiments "compelled the enemy to retire with considerable slaughter." Gen. Lee further stated that "The fire of these latter regiments (the 42nd Georgia and 28th Louisiana) into the flank of the enemy ... was the decisive and culminating feature of the battle." The Union losses were placed at over 1,700 killed, wounded, or captured, plus four stands of colors, and 500 stands of arms captured. Gen. Sherman was forced to withdraw in defeat, back across the Yazoo River. Jerry Hamby and his "pards" could celebrate the New Year of 1863 with a great victory and sense of accomplishment for significant service rendered. Little did they realize the fate that awaited many of them.

The Union defeat at Chickasaw Bayou stalled Gen. Grant's plan to take Vicksburg by direct approach. He was forced to resume bombardment of the city from the Louisiana (west) side of the Mississippi, which was at "high water". Jerry Hamby and the 42nd Georgia were assigned to Gen. Seth Barton's Brigade, Army of Mississippi, in early 1863. Although there were several failed Union expeditions during the first quarter of '63, the Confederate infantry was not much involved. Barton's Brigade was maneuvering south of Vicksburg and north of Port Gibson at this time. There is no indication that Jerry would have seen much, if any, action during January, February, or March, and into April.

In April of '63, Jerry was in the Vicksburg Hospital. His exact illness is not recorded, but we may assume that he had dysentery, which was so common among soldiers at this time. We know that he was back in the field with his Company by mid-May. Whether Jerry was fully recovered from his illness, when he was returned to the field, is not known. But we can speculate that he may have still been in a weakened condition, and was prematurely sent back to the field because of the military situation that was about to unfold.

While Jerry Hamby was in the Vicksburg hospital, Gen. Grant had succeeded in crossing the Mississippi, attaining the eastern shore, south of Vicksburg, in late April of '63. Working his way northeast, Grant's victories at Port Gibson, and at Raymond, in early May, forced the Confederate withdrawal from Jackson (the state capital), due east of Vicksburg. Grant took Jackson, Mississippi, on May 14. The railroad supply lines to Vicksburg were now cut, and the Army of Mississippi, Jerry Hamby included, were isolated.

As of May 1863, Jerry Hamby and the 42nd Georgia belonged to one of three divisions under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton, the defender of Vicksburg. The 42nd was in Barton's Brigade, Stevenson's Division. In an attempt to stop Grant, Pemberton moved most of his forces out of Vicksburg, to Edward's depot, east of Vicksburg, starting on May 12. They remained at Edward's depot from the 13th to the 15th, while Pemberton tried to reconcile conflicting orders from Jefferson Davis and Gen. Joe Johnston, his immediate superior. Finally, on the morning of May 16, Pemberton moved his force eastward from Edward's depot toward Baker's Creek. Here Pemberton's 18,000 men were deployed in a line, three miles long, running from southwest to northeast. Stevenson's division, Jerry Hamby included, was on the Confederate left. The extreme left of the line, at Champion's Hill, was only lightly manned at this time by a few Confederate pickets.

The Confederate line of battle stretched across three roads, running east-west from Jackson to Vicksburg. Thinking that Grant's main attack would come across the Middle and Raymond roads (approximately in the center of his line), Pemberton concentrated his forces there. Grant was actually moving westward in three columns, with one column on the Jackson Road, north of Pemberton's main strength, and on the Confederate left flank. First contact was made about 7 A.M. by the southernmost column, and the fighting began near the Davis Plantation, on the Confederate right. Shortly after 9 A.M., Pemberton received the warning of the Union advance along the Jackson Road. If left unchecked, this Union advance threatened the Confederate's unprotected left flank, and Edward's depot, which would cut them off from their base in Vicksburg. Confederate troops of Stevenson's command were immediately shifted left to cover Champion's Hill, and the major crossroads just to the southwest. Jerry Hamby and the 42nd Georgia were to be in the thick of the action this day.

Stevenson's Confederate division bore the brunt of the day's battle (May 16), and suffered the heaviest losses. At around 10 A.M., Grant moved two Union divisions, 10,000 men, forward on his right (the Confederate left) toward Champion's Hill and the northwest. Grant had decided to concentrate his efforts in this area. To prevent being flanked, the Confederates moved further to the north and west, creating a gap in the center of the Confederate line along the Ratliff Road. By 11:30 A.M., the battle raged back and forth on Champion's Hill. The fighting was intense. The outnumbered Confederates (6500 men) made a gallant effort, the hill changing hands several times. But force of numbers finally prevailed, and the Federals swept over Champion's Hill shortly after 1 P.M.

Jerry Hamby and his fellow soldiers of Stevenson's division, on the Confederate left, fell back in disorder to the Jackson Road, followed closely by the Union forces. The Jackson Road escape route was severed. At some point in the battle of Champion's Hill, Jerry was captured. He apparently survived the day's fighting without a wound, but was one of a large number of his fellows who could not make his escape from the advancing blue-coats. Although the fighting was not yet over for the Confederates (Pemberton counter-attacked later in the day with his remaining divisions, to no avail), the fighting was over for Jerry Hamby and 2,440 other of his comrades. Now began Jerry's experience as a POW

A total of 4,400 unwounded Confederate prisoners of war were captured at Champion's Hill and Big Black Bridge (which occurred the next day, May 17, 1863). Jerry Hamby was one of them. These men were collected at Hayne's Bluff, north of Vicksburg on the Yazoo River, and loaded aboard four troop transports (riverboats). They stopped briefly at Young's Point, Louisiana, north of DeSoto Point, which was Gen. Sherman's base of operations on the Mississippi. From there, they were shipped to Memphis, Tennessee, on May 25. Jerry Hamby's name is recorded on the "Roll of Prisoners of War" captured by the Army of the Tennessee at Champion's Hill.

Jerry was then shipped upriver to Cairo, Illinois. At some point along the river trip from Memphis to Cairo, at least one of the boatloads of Confederate prisoners planned to seize control of the boat, and make their escape. However, the guards discovered the plot before any action was taken, and the takeover attempt never developed. We cannot know if Jerry was involved in this incident, but we may speculate that he was probably ill again, and would not have been physically capable of participating. At Cairo, Illinois, he was transferred to a railroad car, and moved by train to Camp Morton at Indianapolis, Indiana.

Jerry Hamby's name appears on the "Roll of Prisoners of War" at Camp Morton. Known as a "den of misery", Camp Morton, located at Nineteenth and Alabama Streets on the north of Indianapolis, had been constructed as a fair ground. The former horse stables had been converted into barracks for Confederate prisoners. There were no bunks, and prisoners had to sleep on the ground. As usual, rations were meager and conditions unsanitary. However, Camp Morton was known to have quite a good hospital, and a relatively low illness and death rate, when compared with other Union POW camps.

At Camp Morton, 187 captured Confederate officers were separated out, and shipped off to Johnson's Island near Sandusky, Ohio. The remaining 4200, or so, enlisted prisoners were split into two groups of about 2100 each. The intention was to send one group to Fort Delaware, and to keep the second group at Camp Morton. However, not being prepared to deal with the logistics required to support even 2000 POW's, and fearing the growing anti-war political movement in Ohio and Indiana, Governor Morton insisted that the remaining Confederate prisoners be sent outside of Indiana. So the second group of 2000 prisoners was also sent off to Fort Delaware about one week after the first. We have no indication exactly which of the two groups Jerry Hamby was in; his arrival date at Fort Delaware is not recorded. Regardless, he was shipped by railroad, traveling eastward across Ohio to Pittsburgh, and then across Pennsylvania, through Harrisburg, to Philadelphia. At Philadelphia, he was transferred back to river steamer, and moved down the Delaware River to Fort Delaware. The first group of prisoners arrived at Fort Delaware on June 9, 1863, and the second group arrived on June 15. So Jerry was at Fort Delaware by at least the middle of June. Just over one month later, Jerry would be dead.

Fort Delaware is located on Pea Patch Island, in the middle of the Delaware River, between the Delaware and New Jersey shores. Pea Patch Island is a mosquito-infested piece of marshland, one mile east of Delaware City. A pentagon‑shaped fort covers about six acres of the 70 acres considered usable land in the 19th century. The fort is surrounded by a 30 foot moat, crossed by a drawbridge on the Delaware side, leading to the sally port, or principal entrance. The fort contained a two acre parade ground during Civil War times. Two barracks buildings face the parade ground. Offices of the commanding general and living quarters for officers were in the building on the north side. Enlisted men, mess halls, and kitchens were located in the barracks on the west side. Wooden barracks were erected in 1862 to house 2,000 prisoners. By June 1863, there were 8,000 prisoners on the island, and the prison compound had been expanded to cover much of the island to house 10,000. Although Fort Delaware had a hospital, it was considered dirty and poorly staffed.

At some point after his capture, Jerry Hamby once again became ill. Whether this happened before or after his arrival at Fort Delaware is impossible to say. Conditions at Fort Delaware certainly could not have helped his state of health, in any event. Jerry was put in the hospital, were he died on July 18, 1863. He probably died from chronic dysentery, but his records are silent on this point. Like all of the 2700 POW's who died at Fort Delaware, Jerry was buried in a mass, trench grave at Finn's Point, New Jersey. His exact grave site can never be known. At least 33 soldiers from Barton's Georgia Brigade died at Fort Delaware. Including Jerry Hamby, there are 5 members of the 42nd Georgia alone buried at Finn's Point.

Because Jerry Hamby did not have a wife or children, his father, Isaac, was considered his closest relative. Therefore, on August 20, 1863, Isaac Hamby, of Newton County, Georgia, filed a petition with the State of Georgia to receive any benefits due his son from the Confederate States. Thomas Nelms, who states that he had known Jerry Hamby for 15 years, witnessed the petition. The petition was sworn before Justice-of-the-Peace D.T. White, of Newton County. T.A. Walker, clerk of the Inferior Court of Newton County, sealed the document on August 31, 1863. William A. Walton, Agent at Richmond, Virginia, of the Georgia Relief and Hospital Association, was authorized to receive any authorized payments on behalf of Isaac.

Proving that bureaucracy is eternal and non-partisan, it was not until October 19, 1864, that the Treasury Department of the Confederate States even got around to checking on the validity of Isaac's claim. On that date, a request was issued to the Adjutant and Inspector General, C.S., to confirm the service and death of Jerry Hamby. The Inspector General's Office responded a few days later with the confirming information, but declares Jerry to have died on July 18, rather than the 25th, as is recorded multiple times in Jerry's service record. It ultimately does not matter whether Jerry died on July 18, or on July 25; it just shows that even a man's death is subject to the "fog of war". When and what payment was issued to Isaac Hamby is not recorded.

Even though he died from illness, Jerry Hamby was a casualty of war, just as surely as if he had taken a bullet to the head. We must consider that fully three out of four deaths among soldiers during the Civil War were from disease, not from battle wounds. The normal conditions that these men were forced to live under were atrocious; the life of a POW was even worse. Food, when it was available at all, consisted mostly of grease and starch. Water was often polluted. Although they did not understand the biological cause of dysentery, the doctors of the time did know that a diet including fresh fruit and vegetables dramatically improved a man's chances of surviving. However, the armies seldom issued anything fresh to the men in the field, much less to prisoners of war. It is sad to consider that Jerry's life might have been saved by something as simple as a few oranges, or some fresh greens. But the times, and medical knowledge, were such that large numbers of men, Jerry included, died from diseases that could have been easily minimized.

Finn's Point, New Jersey, was officially designated as a National Cemetery in 1875. Union and Confederate soldiers who died during the Civil War are buried within the confines of the same national cemetery, albeit in separate sections. In an act of reconciliation following the successful conclusion of the Spanish-American War, to which the former Confederate states contributed significant support, the United States government, in 1910, authorized the erection of an 85 foot tall obelisk memorializing the Confederates buried at Finn's Point. With reinforced concrete at its core and covered with slabs of Pennsylvania white granite, this monument contains the names of 2,435 Confederate prisoners of war on bronze plaques surrounding its base. The name of Jeremiah B. Hamby appears on one of these plaques.

The sacrifices of Jeremiah Hamby have been forgotten for far too long. Although not unique, his fate should be remembered by the descendants of his father, Isaac. Jerry was a member of the family of who we may be proud. He fought and died with honor in that most tragic of wars. He witnessed events that are the stuff of legend. He is our Hamby legacy.

Acknowledgements:

Specific information on Jeremiah Hamby's military service was taken from his Compiled Military Service Records, National Archives, Washington, DC

Hamby and Melton family genealogy information was taken from hambytree.com and from various trees found at familytreemaker.com.

Speculation on Jerry's physical appearance came from study of photographs of his parents, brothers and sisters; the photos are in the possession of the Hamby family, Atlanta, Georgia, and were formerly the property of Jerry's brother, Jasper Hamby.

42nd Georgia Infantry - 42nd Georgia web-site (members.aol.com/lissiet/42ndcamp.htm); "Record of Events" from the National Archives, Broadfoot Publishing Co.; and from "Organization of Confederate Forces, Army of Vicksburg", National Parks Service (www.nps.gov/vick/vcmpgn).

Battle of Cumberland Gap - "An Incomplete History of the 52nd Regiment, Georgia Volunteer Infantry", Part 1 (www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Bunker/6739/GA52hist1.html).

Confederate troop movements in Kentucky, and the battle of Perryville - "Battle Summary: Perryville, KY", National Parks Service (www2.cr.nps.gov/abpp/battles/ky009.htm); "The Significance of the Battle of Perryville" (www.paracomm.com/perryville/html/significance.html);

"Co. Aytch" by Sam R.Watkins, Touchstone Books (Simon & Schuster),1997; "The American Heritage Picture History of the Civil War", American Heritage Publishing Co, 1960.

Battle of Chickasaw Bayou - "Battle Summary: Chickasaw Bayou, MS", National Parks Service (www2.cr.nps.gov/abpp/battles/ms003.htm); "Battle of Chickasaw Bayou" by Gen. Stephen D. Lee (Confederate Veteran, Vol. VI, No. 11, Nashville, TN, November, 1898); "The Defense of Vicksburg" by S.H. Lockett, C.S.A. (Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Volume III, The Century Company; New York, 1887); "The American Heritage Picture History of the Civil War", American Heritage Publishing Co, 1960

Battle of Champion's Hill - "Battle of Champion Hill", National Parks Service (www.nps.gov/vick/vcmpgn/chmpnhl.htm); "The Defense of Vicksburg" by S.H. Lockett, C.S.A. (Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Volume III, The Century Company; New York, 1887); and "An Incomplete History of the 52nd Regiment, Georgia Volunteer Infantry", Part 1 (www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Bunker/6739/GA52hist1.html).

Movements of the Vicksburg POW's - from personal communications with R. Hugh Simmons, Fort Delaware Society; "They Died at Fort Delaware 1861 - 1865", The Fort Delaware Society.

Camp Morton, Indiana - "Treatment of Prisoners at Camp Morton" by Elder J.K. Womack (Confederate Veteran, Vol. VI, No. 12, Nashville, TN, December, 1898); Alice Williamson Diary - Camp Morton, Indiana State Archives (www.state.in.us/acin/icpr/); "Camp Morton Records 1862 - 1865" (www2.ihs1830.org/ihs1830/morton.htm).

Fort Delaware - personel communications with R. Hugh Simmons, Fort Delaware Society; "A Brief History of Fort Delaware", Fort Delaware Society (www.del.net/org/fort/history1.htm).

Finn's Point National Cemetery - "Finn's Point National Cemetery - A Place of Peace and Reconciliation" by R. Hugh Simmons, Fort Delaware Society (www.del.net/org/fort/FinnsPt.htm).

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(REVISED Friday, June 23, 2000 )

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